The ear structure
The ear is made up of three distinct sections. Their roles are also very distinct.
The dog's ear
The outer ear is made up of the auricle and the outer or auricular duct. The auricle is made of cartilage(?) covered in skin. Its morphology varies from one race to another: short, straight and pricked; button and half dropping ears or wide and dropping. The external ear allows localisation, amplification and modulation of sounds. The auricle also plays a very important role in visual communication, through facial mimics. It is important to note that the auricular duct is bent at a right-angle, which explains why it is dangerous to use ear buds to wash your companion’s ears that risk packing the dirt and creating a blockage!
The middle ear is separated from the outer ear by the eardrum. It is made up of three small bones, the hearing ossicles, located in the bulla. This is where sounds, transformed into sound waves after having been through the eardrum, are amplified.
The inner ear, also called labyrinth, serves two functions:
- Hearing: the sound waves are transformed into electrical signals. These signals are in turn transmitted to the brain, which analyses the information.
- Balance: a liquid-based system acts like a mason’s level and provides information on the body’s position, its movements, etc.
That you ask yourself about your companion
Local accumulation of pus in the cavity formed in healthy tissue.
Totality of mechanisms through which a substance penetrates a mechanism without force.
(?) activated carbon
Carbon having been subjected to a particular high temperature action allowing it to bind (=absoprtion) and retain some substances brought into contact with it. Activaed carbon enables the capture of numerous unesirable substances in the digestive tract: gas, toxins...
(?) anal glands
Glands located either side of the anus of cats and dogs, which produces a thick, greasy and very odorous that plays a role in territory demarcation and recognition of indviduals.
Significant decrease in joint movements, possibly going as far as total loss of movement.
Is said of a substance the action of which is designed to fight against excess secretion (mucus) of a mucosa, such as the respiratory mucosa
Substance that combats infections. Antibiotics, antivirals and anti-sceptics are anti-infectives.
Substance preventing or limiting the formation of free radicals that are aggressive for the organism.
Natural or synthetic substance that, in small doses, destroys bacteria or slows their growth
Substance preventing the growth of, or destroying, fungi and the yeast responsible for mycosis
Substance that helps prevent spasms, convulsions
Substance that acts against viruses
Process by which a living organism transforms absored food into its own substance.
Single-celled organsm (=made up of one cell), belonging neither to the animal or plant kingdoms. Some bacteria called pathogens are the agents of bacterial illness.
(?) bitter orange tree
Type of orange tree that produces bitter oranges, called bigarades. Its essential oil is used to treat insomnia. It has soothing and anxiolytic properties
Rumbling or gurgling sound produced by the displacement of gas in the digestive tract.
Generic term designating any inflammation of the bronchi.
(?) canine teeth
All of the dog’s and cat’s very sharp teeth, located between the incisors and the premolars.
A supple and at times elastic tissue that is found in various forms at the surface of bones that are in contact with articulations, as well as in the bronchi, ear etc.
(?) cat flu (coryza)
Infectious disease in cats that manifests through respiratory issues. Also called rhinotracheitis, its agents are viruses such as the feline herpes virus (FeHV-1), feline calicivirus, and the Chlamydophila felis bacteria.
Carbohydrate that is not digestible for mammals and that constitutes the principal wall of plant cells. Cellulose is an example of a dietary fiber.
Antiseptique à large spectre d'action. La chlorhexidine altère les parois des bactéries et de certains champignons.
Nutrients that have a protective action for joint cartilage by facilitating the synthesis of constituents of that cartilge.
Tree native to Indonesia that produces floral buds, “cloves” used as spice and possessing various medicinal qualities: anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory etc.
To transform in a semi-solid substance, for a organic liquid such as blood or milk.
(?) complementary feed
Concentrated source of essential nutrients (vitamins, minerls) or conferring health benefits. The term "dietary complement" is replaced by "compementary feed" in cats and dogs.
Decrease in stool emissions both in terms of volume and frequency
Is said of an illness that is trasmitted from one individual to another.
Natural hormone produced in the cortex of adrenal glands and medical substances with anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties.
Small slit in the skin.
Small flakes that have detached themselves from the skin.
(?) dental extraction
An intervention to remove a tooth
(?) dental plaque
More or less mineralized organic rdeposits found at the surface of teeth and made up of food debris, bacteria, and substances produced by these bacteria (forming a biofilm). Dental plaque bolsters the chances of scale or periodontal disease seeling in, which can lead to loss of teeth and generalized infections in cats and dogs.
Action of removing scale accumulated between the teeth.
Treatment which serves to eliminate parasitic intestinal worms.
Increase in the frequency of stool emissions that are softer and more liquid.
Totality of transformation, essentially through the action of digestive enzymes, that make food ready to be absorbed by the lining of the digestive tract.
(?) ear infection (otitis)
Inflammation of the ear.
(?) ear mites
Contagious, parasitic illness of cats and dogs caused by dust mites called Otodectes cynotis. This dust mite digs tunnels in the epidermis of the external auditory conduit and results ni significant itching of the ears and an abundant production of dark and brittle cerumen
Hard, mineralised substance covering the surface of teeth.
Organic molecules produced by some cells in order to faciliate or accelerate a chemical reaction. Digestive enzymes allow for a decrease in the number of nutrients that the digestive tract can absorb.
Tree native to Australia. The essential oil produced from its leaves is used to treat respiratory issues. Its use on cats must be particularly moderate:
Substance that facilitates the expulsion by coughing of products and secretions present in the respiratory system.
(?) fecal impaction
Concretion of fecal matter associated with the slowing of intestinal transit.
Abnormal elevation in the central body temperature, beyond physiological levels.
Carbohydrates present in plants and not digested by mammals. Cellulose, just like pysllium, is a dietary plant fiber and a source of non-fermentable fiber.
Or fructooligosaccharides. They are fermentable fibers used by the microbiota of the digestive tract (digestive flora) as a source of energy.
Unicellular or pluricellular plant deprived of chlorophyll that has to feed itself by absorbing organic molecules directly in their environment.
Or glycosaminoglycans. These are components or precursors of molecules that constitute cartilage and the synovial liquid that lubrifies joints.
(?) gastric juices
Liquid secreted by the stomach, made up of many elements destined to facilitate digestion of food.
(?) glucuronyl transferase
Hepatic enzyme (=of the liver) that allows for the transformation of certain molecules such as the phenolic components, in view of their elimination. Its absence in cats makes this species very sensitive to paractemol, notably.
(?) hyaluronic acid
Essential component of connective tissue (tissue that supports organs) and cartilage. It has a strong water retention capacity and plays the rle of a barrier against foreign substances.
Both in liquid and gas form. The hydrolipic film that covers the epidermis ensures that the cutaneous barrier is sealed and protected both from soluble substances in water and lipids.
(?) immune system
Totality of the organisms defense mechanisms against foreign intrusions: virus, bacteria, fungi etc.
Teeth located in the front and the middle of the jaw, between the canine teeth.
Therapeutic process that consists in inhaling water fumes containing volatile medical substances.
(?) intestinal or digestive flora
Also called intestinal microbiota, they are the collection of microorganisms present in the digestive tract.
Totality of elements by which the bones or cartilages are tied togther. The majority of joints allow for movement, for example the knee joint
Protein fiber present in the epidermis, hair and nails.
(?) kidney diseases
Disease characterised by a sharp, or chronic and evolutive decrease in the filtration capacity of the kidneys.
That facilitates stool evacuation.
Yeast that forms part of the natural flora present at the surface of the skin of humans, cats and dogs, and which can become a pathogen in some conditions.
(?) maritime pine
A conifer species, whose essential oi, extracted from resin, also called turpentine, has anti-catarrhal, anti-infectious, expectorant,and antioxidant properties and that stimulates the adrenal glands and the immune system.
The group of reactions that take place in a living organism and that lead to the synthesis (anabolism) or breakdown (catabolism).
Teeth located in the back of the jaw.
Mineral of the smectite family. Used by the detary tract, it binds itself the lining of the digestive tract and has a digestive and absorbant bandaging action (=binding of substances). Its significant capacity to bind to water gives it an appeal during diarrhea. This clay takes its name from the village of Motmorillon in the Vienna, from where it used to be extracted.
Change of coat for cats and dogs, characterized by hair loss and replacement.
(?) mouth ulcers
Loss of the substance lining the mucosa, the tissue that lines the oral cavity.
Membrane lining the wall of the internal cavities and hollow organs (respiratory and digestive systems).
Plant from the Mediterranean region. Its essential oil possesses sanitizing properties (for the ambient air), as well as anti-infectious and expectorant properties.
Plant belonging to the same family as myrtles, and more precisely, a melaleuca, native to the Indian Ocean. Its essential oils possess numerous medicinal qualities but must be avoided with cats.
Element contained in food or originaing in natural environments that has an organic (amino acids…) or minerals (calcium), which the organism can use withtout requiing transformation in order to assimilate cells. We distinguish between six categories of nutrients: water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and salt minerals.
(?) osteoarthritis (arthrosis)
A painful and degenerative inflammatory disease of the joints that is chronic and irreversible, and characterized by the destruction of the cartilage and the modification of the bone structure.
Living being, most often an animal, which either permanently or temporarily needs to feed off another organism, called host, to its detriment.
(?) periodontal disease
Disease affecting the entirety of dental support tissue: bones, ligaments, gums.
Measure of acidity. A neutral pH, such as that of water, is 7. A pH inferior to 7 is said to be acidic. A pH superior to 7 is said to be basic or alkaline.
Chemical substance made up of six carbons, cyclically bound, and derived from the core of benzene.
Dietary substance, generally in the form of carbohydrates such as fructo-oligosaccharides, used by bacteria of the digestive flora (microbiota) as a source of energy.
Teeth located between the canines and the molars.
Living microorganism having beneficial effects on health when ingested in sufficient amounts.
Biological substance composed of amino acids. Proteins play numerous roles in the constitution and functioning of living beings.
Soluble and non fermentable source of fiber, extracted from the integument (=external layer) of the seeds of Desert Indian wheat (plantago ovata). In a solution of water, pssyllium form a viscous gel that interesting properties in periods of constipation or colitis in cats and dogs. Blond psyllium is preferable as it is non irritating for the digestive mucosa, contrary to brown psyllium.
(?) pupil dilation
Increase in the diametre of the pupil, the oifice at the center of the eye's iris. Also called mydriasis.
The presence of pus in the uterus.
Shrub native to the Mediterranean region. Its essential oils, despite possessing many properties (antiseptic and expectorant) should be used with caution or even avoided altogether for some cats (officinalis rosemary essential oil rich in camphor)
Mineralized dental plaque, itself an organic deposit found at the surface of teeth and made up of food debris, bacteria, and substances produced by these bacteria.
Product of secretion of the sebaceous glands, composed of cellular debris and lipids. Sebum helps protect the skin from skin barrier.
That modulates the secretion of sebum, the product of the sebaceous glands that play an important role in the protection of the skin and participate in forming the cutaneous barrier. In some affections, the production of sebum is disturbed; increase or decrease.
Inflammation of the sinuses, the cavities of the bones of the face.
Fibers that can be dissolved in water.
(?) spike lavender
Shrub of the lavender family, its essential oil is soothing, relaxing, helps scarring and serves as an antiseptic
Action of tying the two ends of a wound with string.
Visimble of perceptible manifestation of a state or illness.
(?) tea tree
Plant that belongs to the same family as myrtles. Its essential oil has many properties
(?) test 1
Serious infectious disease that can sometimes be deadly, which is produced by a soil bacteria (=present in soil and dirty objects), clostridium tetani. Inoculation is useful following a wound, which can at times be barely visible, such as a sting.
Aromatic plant. There are over 300 varieties of thyme. Rich in essential oils that have multiple qualities: it is a powerful antibacterial, antifungal, and spasmolytic, etc. Certain varieties rich in thymol can be irritating to the mucosa and should be avoided during nebulisation.
(?) trace elements
Mineral element, nutrient present in a trace state in food and the organism.
Method of exploring internal organs through the reflection of ultrasounds. The analysis of the sounds' echos against these organs allows for the reconstruction of an image.
(?) unsaturated fats
Unsaturated fats that cats and dogs cannot satisfy in sufficient quantities. They therefore must find them in their diet. Omega 3s and Omega 6s are part of this family.
Action that protects from a viral or bacterial disease using a vaccine, an inactivated or diminished pathological substance, to stimulate the immune system
Infectious agent of very small size that needs a host to multiply.
Organic substance brought by the diet, without any energetic value but that is vital for the organism.
Medical imaging technique using x-rays to form an image after it has crossed the body part to be explored.